The Public Face of African New Religious Movements in Diaspora: Imagining the Religious Other

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The analogical imagination contrasts with the dialectical imagination , which stresses the individual and the belief that God has withdrawn from the sinful world. This concept was developed by Andrew Greeley , who believed that Catholics tend to have analogical imagination, while Protestants tend to have dialectical imagination.

He used his exceptional memory to recite the Buddha's sermons , and played a pivotal role in forming the Buddhist community after the Buddha's death. He also is known for his support of female disciples Smith and Green Anathema : 1 A Greek term referring to a curse in the New Testament. Anatman : A Buddhist doctrine denying the reality of a permanent, immortal soul as the spiritual center of a human.

The term means "no self," and it is meant to teach that all things are connected and there is no separate existence Esposito et al. Ancestor Worship : The worship, feeding and petitioning of the souls of dead ancestors at home altars, temples and graves. This practice is most common among East Asian religions Esposito et al. Angel : A superhuman intermediary between the divine and human realm. Angels exist in Judaism , Christianity and Islam. Perhaps the most famous angel is Gabriel , who reveals himself as God's messenger in the Hebrew scriptures , Christianity's New Testament and Islam's Koran.

Theological discussions of the nature of angels vary by tradition Smith and Green Some view the Anglican Church as a "middle way" between Catholicism and Protestantism , since both traditions have influenced Anglican theology and practice Mead et al. For more information on the Anglican family, click here. Animism : The belief in an inner soul that represents the main identity for all humans, animals, plants and places.

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It places a large emphasis on ritualistic activities Esposito et al. Anomie can be interpreted in terms of the values and norms of society, both of which may be established and supported by religion Stark and Bainbridge Antichrist : In Christian literature, the Antichrist is an evil figure that deceives people into thinking that he is holy. In the end-times , according to the Christian tradition, Jesus will come back and defeat the Antichrist Smith and Green In Islamic eschatology , there also is an Antichrist figure that is depicted in the Hadith as a one-eyed monster from the East who rules the earth for a period of time before Jesus comes to vanquish him Hinnells Anti-Cult Movement : As new religious groups grew in popularity, in part due to the counterculture of the s, conservative opposition emerged in the form of the anti-cult movement.

Not only did anti-cult advocates fear unorthodox religious beliefs and practices, but parents of converts and ex-members would often accuse new religious groups of "brainwashing" converts.

The Public Face of African New Religious Movements in Diaspora

Anti-literal Religion : A simple rejection of literalist religious statements Hunt Antinomianism : 1 The belief that certain religious allegiances exempt one from following secular law. The famous "Antinomian Controversy" took place in the s, where Anne Hutchinson was brought to trial in Massachusetts for claiming to follow her direct revelation of the Holy Spirit instead of Scripture alone. She was banished from the colony in Reid et al. Anti-Semitism : Unreasoning hostility toward and discrimination against the Jews.

It can range from a formal doctrine and from mild antipathy to active efforts to kill the Jews.

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German writer Wilhelm Marr coined the term in to distinguish between secular hatred for the Jews as a people and hatred toward the Jewish religion , although the modern usage of the word denotes hatred for the Jews and Judaism in all forms Smith and Green Apocalypse : Catastrophic end-times battle between good and evil, in which good will triumph over evil. The Greek term refers to "hidden things. Apocrypha : A collection of books or chapters of books not included in the Hebrew Bible , but present in various Christian versions of the Old Testament , mostly in the Catholic and Orthodox traditions.

These traditions see the Apocrypha as authoritative, whereas Protestantism does not. Protestant Bibles either exclude the Apocrypha or create a separate section for it found in-between the Old and New Testament. Traditions that include this collection of terms prefer the term "deuterocanonical" books, not the Apocrypha. This collection of books is not to be confused with the pseudepigrapha or the Christian Apocrypha , which are not regarded as authoritative by any major branch of Christianity Smith and Green Apologetics : The argumentation or defense on behalf of a certain religious faith.

It is usually directed toward those outside the faith community, but the audience is usually those within the faith community Reid et al. Famous apologists include Orestes Brownson and Francis Schaeffer. Apologist : One who engages in apologetics see Apologetics.


Apostasy : Departing or falling away from a religious faith. In Christianity , it is the complete renunciation of the faith through either words or actions Reid et al. Apostle : It refers to both the mission and representational authority of someone sent on a mission by a superior. In Christianity , "apostle" refers to the authoritative mission conferred to Christ on his disciples, with special emphasis on the Twelve Apostles and other specific people, to continue his mission on earth after his resurrection-ascension Reid et al. Apostles' Creed : Short statement of Christian beliefs, attributed to Jesus' disciples, but officially written long after their deaths Prothero Archbishop : The bishop of an Archdiocese.

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The archbishop's power extends over an ecclesiastical province, not just a diocese. Catholic Churches , Eastern Orthodox Churches , and Anglican Churches maintain these hierarchal positions, although the jurisdiction, positional rank and specific role of the archbishop differs by tradition Reid et al. Archdiocese : A large diocese overseen by the Archbishop. Since the fourth century CE, neighboring dioceses have been grouped into provinces, and the most important province has been designated as the archdiocese, while the others are called "suffragan dioceses.

Arhat : One who has attained the final stage of enlightenment in Theravada Buddhism. Over time, a distinction arose between arhats and bodhisattvas , and some Mahayanists came to malign arhats as a selfish and inferior enterprise, lacking in the compassion of the bodhisattva. There has been some debate as to whether only monks and nuns or laypeople can be arhats, and whether arhats still exist today Smith and Green Armageddon : A term referring to the battle between god and evil in the last days. The term itself only appears once in the Bible in Revelation When many Methodist missionaries fled back to England during the American Revolution, he stayed behind and continued spreading Methodism.

For more information on Francis Asbury, click here. Asceticism : The complete renunciation of physical pleasures and other bodily desires in order to foster spiritual development. This practice is common in many religious traditions, including Buddhism , Catholicism , Eastern Orthodoxy and classical Hinduism Smith and Green Ash Wednesday : The first day of the Lent in the Western calendar, where individuals spread ashes on their forehead as a sign of penitence or mortality Smith and Green Ashkenazi : Jews originating from central and eastern Europe.

This group adopted Yiddish , a language based on medieval German. As the Pentecostal movement began to flourish in the early 20th century, several diverse regional constituencies of the Reformed tradition desired to combine their efforts into one movement. Click here for more information on the founding of the Assemblies of God. Today they have a little under three million adherents Smith and Green Astral Projection : The experience of one's soul traveling outside the physical body into unknown realms of the universe. The belief in astral projection is found in many occult systems Smith and Green Astrology : Belief and practice of determining the influence of stars Smith and Green Atman : The Hindu concept that the soul resides in the heart, and is the source of life energy and spiritual awareness.

In Hindu thought, the soul transmigrates after death Esposito et al. Atonement : A term in both Judaism and Christianity referring to the forgiveness of sins. For Christians , atonement is found through the death of Jesus Christ on the cross. For Jews , atonement is found on the holiday Yom Kippur Day of Atonement , where practitioners ask God to forgive them of the sin they committed in the past year Prothero Attendance at Religious Services, Measure of : This survey item measures how frequently respondents attend places of worship.

It is debatable how much measurement error is present in self-reported attendance, as people tend to over-estimate their participation see Smith Attribution of Intentionality : Perhaps the most widely influential theory currently in the cognitive science approach to religion , it holds that faith in supernatural beings is a cognitive error that naturally springs from the way the human brain evolved. Authoritarian Religion : A type of individual religion where the main virtue is obedience and its cardinal sin is disobedience Fromm Authoritarianism : The tendency to follow a strong leader or rigid social conventions.

Avalokiteshvara : The most popular and celestial bodhisattva in Buddhism , especially Mahayana Buddhism. He is the bodhissattva of compassion.

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In China, Avalokiteshvara is known as Guanyin, and is female Esposito et al. Ayatollah : The highest rank of Shi'ite Muslim clerics. The term literally means "sign of God. It was a defining event for early Pentecostalism and functioned as the catalyst to the growth of American Pentecostalism.

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Some question the assumptions behind the aging effect given how religious activity tends to increase with age even among those who do not believe in the afterlife Ulbrich and Wallace , but the assumptions underlying religious substitution between time and money are more widely accepted see Religious Substitution Theory. The Baha'i faith is now worldwide and teaches the unity of God, the truth of his prophets , and continuation of revelation in every age.

It has no priesthood, believing in spiritual equality between men and women Parrinder Baptism : The rite of applying water to a person, usually marking his or her entrance into the Christian church. It appears to have derived from John the Baptist in the first century CE, although some scholars believe that the act was inspired by the ritual ablution of the Jewish Essenes.

Churches and denominations are divided on whether baptism literally or symbolically washes away sin Smith and Green Baptist : Protestants that originated from 17th century English Puritanism.

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The term "Baptist" came from their insistence that baptism should be reserved for those old enough to comprehend and confess a personal faith in Jesus. Modern Baptist churches teach that only believers should be voluntarily baptized by immersion Reid et al.

For more on the Baptist family, click here. To interactively explore the history of Baptists in America, click here.