The Political Economy of Germany in the Twentieth Century

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Germany came to dominate all the major Continental markets except France.

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The focus of national wealth as well as population shifted to the urban industrial sector by Only 40 percent of Germans lived in rural areas by , a drop from 67 percent at the birth of the empire. Cities of more than , inhabitants accounted for one-fifth of the population in , compared to one-twentieth at the time of unification. The application of intensive agricultural techniques led to a doubling in the value of all farm products despite a sharp decline in the rural population.

Industry accounted for 60 percent of the gross national product in The German working class grew rapidly in the late 19th and the early 20th century. Total union membership reached 3. Although German employers were extremely authoritarian and hostile to collective bargaining , the labour force did make significant economic gains.

Between and the average number of hours worked per year declined by 14 percent.

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Nearly every study of real income shows a rapid rise until and then a modest increase yearly thereafter. National income per capita rose from marks to during the life of the empire.

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Despite these advances, industrial workers lacked full political rights, which led a large number of them, including many Roman Catholic workers, to vote for the revolutionary socialist party. While industrialization was rapid, it occurred only in certain sectors of the economy; other areas were only marginally affected. Some two million Germans persisted in traditional artisanal enterprises even as the nation became an industrial colossus.

In essence, it provides a social history of mass culture by in In essence, it provides a social history of mass culture by investigating the role and impact of film, radio, recorded music, popular press, and advertising on everyday leisure as well as on shifting patterns of social distinction. Furthermore, it also analyses the political implications of these changes as part of a radically altered public sphere.

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By locating the rapid expansion of communications and commercial entertainments firmly within their broader historical context, it sheds light on the relationship between mass media, social change, and political culture during this tumultuous period in German history. Keywords: advertising , entertainment , film , Germany , mass culture , media , leisure , political culture , press , radio.

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How Does German Economy Compare to United States Economy?

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