As electronics and the devices that incorporate them — smartphones, laptops and the like — have become smaller and smaller, the semiconductor transistors that power them have shrunk to the point of being not much larger than an atom. To overcome this limitation, researchers are seeking ways to harness the unique characteristics of nanoscale atomic cluster arrays — known as quantum dot superlattices — for building next generation electronics such as large-scale quantum information systems.
In the quantum realm, precision is even more important. The quantum dots can be placed less than four nanometers apart, so that they become an artificial crystal — essentially a new 2-D material where the band gap can be specified to order, from 1.
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This is the first time that scientists have created a large-area 2-D superlattice — nanoscale atomic clusters in an ordered grid — on an atomically thin material on which both the size and location of quantum dots are precisely controlled. The process not only creates several quantum dots, but can also be applied directly to large-scale fabrication of 2-D quantum dot superlattices. Each quantum dot acts as a quantum well, where electron-hole activity occurs, and all of the dots in the grid are close enough to each other to ensure interactions.
The researchers can vary the spacing and size of the dots to vary the band gap, which determines the wavelength of light it emits. Provides a basic understanding of the physics involved from first principles, while adding new depth, using basic mathematics and an explanation of the background essentials.
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Nakazawa, T. Newman, K. Pollak, F. Schulman, J. See also references therein.