The non-virtual matter particle is created simultaneously with the generation of non-virtual space-time frame: mass is the part of energy to be conserved in space phase: the dense space phase, formed through change of frequency of correlation of space-time variables leads to the generation of different masses responsible for different particles. The density of space phase is determined by the Eigen value 6 , therefore mass is not constant, it changes with the change of frequency.
Due to this phenomenon electron has no constant mass, it transforms to other families as it moves through space. Discrete energy conservation eliminates the infinity of the energy, produced during contraction of space phase to minimum size 6 through re-alignment and coupling with the time phase.
The time reversal asymmetry of space-time boundaries arises from discrete energy conservation where forward and backward directions have different initial energetic conditions. Fraction of time is needed to complete a full cycle when the minimum portion of the space phase passes through inversion frame from negative to the positive direction. The equation 9 describes total spin symmetry of matter-antimatter interactions. The spin of right-handed photons is equal to the sum of the two half spins of left-handed particles which hold conservation of energy, charge and momentum.
The super partner of gamma rays is two pair of four fermions 9 which generates re-alignment of the particles in space-time reversal cycles. As can be seen, without composite photon it is impossible to describe generation of mass. The mechanism of equation 9 is in agreement with the results of Stefano Profumo[ 9 ], who found that electron, reacting with the surrounding dark matter could fuse into a heavy version of electron and when it returns to the initial state radiates gamma rays.
Light quanta do not have independent existence and cannot hold fixed amount of energy without space-time structure. On this basis, it is clear why matter-carrying ingredient of Eigen value is negatively charged. The scheme 9 involving inversion operations describe charge and spin conservations. In accordance with the equation 9 , electrons are the light photons, localized in the virtual space-time frame that is why all electrons have the same charge.
When a particle form non-virtual space-time frame it became a different particle. From model 6 and scheme 9 follows, that removal of last portion of matter from vacuum needs more energy than background state. Therefore, the boundary space-time unit participates in the coordinate inversion and grows of particles, which leads to the expansion of space.
In discrete energy conservation concept the initial and end states are vector fields. The consumed energy is not equivalent to the scattered energy, which leads to the asymmetric space-time boundaries. The space phase virtual fermions is less symmetric than time phase, therefore energy conservation has handiness in direction of energy consumption and the consumption of energy is accelerated. The interference of space-time phases at background state 9 is not linear and coupling of the matter-anti matter particles forms intermediate loop boundary of mixed matter-anti matter frame: electron is produced from neutrino side while positron is generated from photonic side.
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Due to the different spin for bosons and fermions, the alignment is directed to the matter side with the shift of handiness from the left to the right consumption of energy in space phase. This is the origin why matter spin has to be twice less than bosons. Therefore, the asymmetry in spin and in the boundary of space-time variables is the origin of the matter of universe. The transformation from spin one to half spin has to lead to the energy loss but this energy is accumulated in the pion and kaon fields. Leptons are products of virtual space-time while baryons are location of quarks in the non-virtual space-time frame, which makes radiation of matter and energy non-invariant.
The quantum theories treat right and left-handed particles symmetrically which leads to the invariance of Lagrangian action. This is the problem all of physical theories. Background state 9 connects all conservation laws except asymmetry of space-time boundaries. The general principle of super symmetry and action invariance can be realized when the change of the energy of bosons, relative to its initial state, is equal to the change of the energy of under action fermions relative to the applied energy.
In this case, the laws can remain the same for both systems. The question, which has to be answered here, is the nature and origin of the borrowed energy. The unanswered question of quantum physics is how to describe energy of empty space if contains any kind of energy. In accordance with the model 6 , the space-time can exist only through interaction with other space-time field.
The baryonic space-time structure of matter exists in interaction with the non-baryonic matter field forming leptonic matter. The existence of neutrinos in three flavors requires the existence of light photons also in three flavors similar to the equation 9 :. The Y , G and Z describe different flavors of photons having different frequency.
At this state, the energy is not dispersive Eigen value is minus one and the virtual photon particles are indistinguishable. Based on scheme we may extend our analysis on the wave —particle duality of the light. Light is wave, but presently it is not known how it is waving. In accordance with the special relativity light travels through vacuum with constant speed but this concept does not explain what medium has a vacuum, which carries the light with the constant speed. Maxwell equations also do not involve any medium to carry light waves. Due to the discrete energy conservation, light travels in space-time phases through polarization of wave and particle properties.
In accordance with the equations 6 and 7 , light does not propagate without momentum which constraints propagation of light wave in space. The space-time frame and light energy radiation are symmetric in discrete mode. Discrete energy conservation and boundary mapped space-time concept describe this problem differently: light is the discrete identity, which produces its derivative space-time frame, and any observable identity is the interaction with this frame. Therefore, light does not exist independent of space-time frame. In accordance with the discrete energy conservation concept, it is impossible to shift space-time phases of a particle having the same spin unit of its constituents.
Spin is the result of energy conservation in different phases, which leads to the generation of direction. At discrete conservation of energy, the background state of annihilation 9 does not lead to the divergence due to the conservation of finite amount of energy within asymmetric boundary of space and time phases. The alignment of the ingredients of the scheme 9 is the polarization of neutral leptons to fermions. The electric charge keeps photon in the form of gluon, when charge is annihilated gluon also disappears. In real world due to the discrete correlation with the applied energy, the anti neutrino has right handed helicity.
In this exchange interaction, the top quark is conjugated with its weak isospin partner of bottom quark. The boundary energy of top quark does not limit frequency of decay during its coupling with the up quark. Therefore, particles, which exchange energy, are bosons while particles exchanging momentum are fermions. With other definition particles carrying energy in time phase are bosons but conserving energy in space phase are fermions. The exchange of energy does not affect the wave function Eigen state while exchange of momentum changes the sign of the wave function. The phenomenon, which make light to move and generate discrete radiation is the discrete energy conservation within space and time phases.
The model 6 in this case explains why correlated electromagnetic interaction of proton with electron is stronger than the reverse weak force of neutron decay to proton and electron. In classic way, a matter is the quadratic product of the two fields and coupling of space and time phases gives the potential of the observable frame. This principle is similar to the quantum mechanics concept that the square modulus of wave function is associated with the probability of observing the object. In quantum field theory, the energy of vacuum is zero, but formation of mass requires the positive sign of energy between the vacuum and the next lowest energy state.
The generation of energy as a quadratic product of coupling of opposite space-time vector fields can be described as follows. The quadratic quantity of space phase describes the energy density in space while the quadratic quantity of time phase describes frequency of the change of this phase. Coupling of opposite charge carrying space-time vector fields is similar to the coupling of matter-antimatter particles 6 :. Coupling of matter-antimatter particles of the equations 9 is similar to the scheme Here arises very important question why background space-time coupling should leads to the generation of top-bottom quarks.
The top-bottom quarks are similar to other quarks but due to the high energy, they decay fast and do not form non-virtual space-time structure of baryons. The magnitude of the background energy 9 is fixed within boundary of space-time that is why top quark mass does not move to the infinity.
In accordance with the energy conservation 9 , d-u transformation of quarks cannot be realized by simple emission of the W — bosons because in this case the energy is not conserved. Therefore, energy and identity conservations in quarks transformations have to be realized through coupling of t-b transformations with one side with u-d, from other side with s-c quarks where the total energy and momentum are discretely conserved:.uporemodar.cf
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In accordance with the equation 9 , the identity of a particle can be determined with the charged particles but electromagnetism is carried by neutral photons. On this basis the particle performance of baryon in space-time frame, is carried by charged particle that is why the electromagnetic force cannot hold alone the identity conservation of baryons. In accordance with the conditions , conservation of causality of action is realized with correlation of end and initial states through [ T-B ] bi-mesons [ ss- - bb- — tt--uu- ] which regulates discrete exchange of energy within nucleons and background polarization state.
Top meson has to be created from anti top and up quark while anti top meson forms from top quark and anti up quark. B meson simultaneously is produced from b-anti quark b-bar and d -quark. Its antiparticle B- anti meson is formed from b -quark and anti d -anti quark. The discrete performance of two nuclear frames is the requirement of discrete identity conservation of nuclear within uud-udd and ssc-ccs nucleons coupled with the t-b transformations.
The ssc-ccs play a role of isotopic nucleon. This is the inverse spontaneous symmetry breaking. This is the explanation why nuclear force is short ranged. Depending from Eigen value, meson field can be real or virtual particle. At this condition, there is no difference between electromagnetic force and gravitation. The heavier the meson the shorter is time allowed for the exchange process therefore only asymmetry of space-time boundaries allows existing of heavy top mesons.
The mystery of conventional physics why the pion should have mass is explained with the discrete energy conservation within matter-antimatter particles, located within space-time phases. Separation of quark-anti quark pair is impossible due to the impossibility of separation of energy, distributed within space and time phases. In accordance with the quantum principles, quarks would radiate energy of interaction and dissipate their motion. Model 6 explains this phenomenon: the constant motion of quarks in baryons is in invariant coupling with the background state: at constant coupling with the background, state uniform transformation within p-n pairs gives to the quarks identity conservation with the symmetric wave function.
At these conditions, the quarks have the same symmetric performance with the particles of background photons. By quantum physics, it is hard to keep electric charge in a small pack because it repels itself.