A similar setback would accompany sales efforts targeting the Dutch Air Force , who was looking to purchase 36 fighters to form two new squadrons. A He B-1 arrived for testing on 12 July and quickly proved to be the best aircraft in the competition. Nevertheless, they decided to purchase the locally built and rather outdated Koolhoven F. The aircraft was not ready for production, so in an odd twist, they then purchased a number of Hawker Hurricanes because they could be delivered immediately.
In the end, the F. Fortunes would be seem to be reversed with Hungary. They were impressed with what they saw, and on 7 September, an order was placed for 36 aircraft, as well as an offer to license the design for local construction. Through a variety of political mishaps, only three aircraft were ever delivered and licensed production never happened.
The final and perhaps most successful customer for the He B was Romania. Deliveries started in June, with the last being delivered on 30 September. By this point, war had broken out, and with better models on the market - including Heinkel's own He - no one else was interested in purchasing the design. The production line was closed after a total of only 98 aircraft, 85 of those being the B series models.
In , the Army Weapons Office testing ground at Kummersdorf had taken over research into liquid-fuel rockets. In , Wernher von Braun designed a rocket of this kind which used high percentage spirit and liquid oxygen. With this he made the first experiments. In he fired his second rocket type, the A2 , from the North Sea island of Borkum.
Having completed the programme of experiments, von Braun was interested in evaluating an aircraft with a rocket motor propulsion system. For this he needed an aircraft and support team. Many people, technicians and academic experts in positions of influence in aeronautics, maintained that an aircraft driven by a tail thrust would experience a change in the centre of gravity and flip over. Very few believed the contrary, but one of them was Ernst Heinkel. Following his offer of unhesitating support, Heinkel placed at the disposal of von Braun an He fuselage shell less wings for the standing tests.
A great tongue of flame from the rocket motor roared through the fuselage tail to set up the back thrust. Late in Erich Warsitz was seconded by the RLM to Wernher von Braun and Ernst Heinkel, because he had been recognized as one of the most experienced test pilots of the time, and because he also was technically proficient.
Erich Warsitz : "For the later flight trials Heinkel gave us an airworthy He which we fitted with an additional rocket motor, and after months of untiring effort we started to look for somewhere to carry out the flight experiments under conditions of secrecy and reasonable safety.
The RLM agreed to lend Neuhardenberg , a large field about 70 kilometres east of Berlin, listed as a reserve airfield in the event of war. Since Neuhardenberg had no buildings or facilities, a number of marquees were erected to house the aircraft. In the spring of the Kummersdorf Club transferred to Neuhardenberg and continued the standing trials with the He fuselage.
Despite the wheels-up landing and having the fuselage on fire, it proved to official circles that an aircraft could be flown satisfactorily with a back-thrust system through the rear. She was then broken down and shipped to Spain on 9 December and assigned to Versuchsjagdgruppe 88, a group within the Legion Condor devoted to testing new aircraft and joined three V-series Bf s which were also in testing.
Oberleutnant Wilhelm Balthasar used it to attack an armoured train and an armoured car.
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Other pilots flew it, but the engine seized during landing in July and she was written off. For the annexation of the Sudetenland , every flightworthy fighter was pressed into service. The batch of He Bs for the Japanese Navy was taken over, but not used before the end of the crisis and shipped to Japan to fulfill orders. The Japanese rejected the He as a fighter but took 30 for training duties, and V11 with its DB Aa was used for testing.
- Heinkel He 112 BO/B1.
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The Spanish government purchased 12 He Bs. This increased to The He s were to operate as top cover for Fiat fighters in the opening stages of the Civil War, the Fiat having considerably worse altitude performance. In the event, only a single kill was made with the He as a fighter and it was moved onto ground-attack work. None of these incidents resulted in losses. By , the aircraft were largely grounded due to a lack of fuel and maintenance.
Like the Germans, Hungary had stiff regulations imposed on her armed forces with the signing of the Treaty of Trianon. In August , the armed forces were re-formed, and with Austria historically her partner for centuries being incorporated into Germany, Hungary found herself in the German sphere. One of the highest priorities for the forces was to re-equip the MKHL as soon as possible. Of the various aircraft being considered, the He B eventually won out over the competition, and on 7 September, an order was placed for 36 aircraft.
The Heinkel production line was just starting, and with Japan and Spain in the queue, it would be some time before the aircraft could be delivered. Repeated pleas to be moved to the top of the queue failed. V9 was sent to Hungary as a demonstrator after a tour of Romania, and arrived on 5 February It was test flown by a number of pilots over the next week, and on 14 February, they replaced the propeller with a new three-bladed Junkers design licensed from Hamilton.
While being tested against a CR. With the Japanese and Spanish orders filled, things were looking up for Hungary. However, at that point, Romania placed its order, and was placed at the front of the queue. It appeared that the Hungarian production machines might never arrive, so the MKHL started pressing for a license to build the aircraft locally. In May, the Hungarian Manfred-Weiss company in Budapest received the license for the aircraft, and on 1 June, an order was placed for 12 aircraft. Heinkel agreed to deliver a Jumo Ga-powered aircraft to serve as a pattern aircraft.
On arrival in Hungary, the 7. M machine guns, and bomb racks were added. The resulting fit was similar to those originally ordered by Austria.
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Late in March, the He V8 took the world absolute speed record, but in stories about the record attempt, the aircraft was referred to as the He U. Upon hearing of the record, the Hungarians decided to switch production to this "new version" of the , which was based on the newer engines. Then in August, the Commander-in-Chief of the MKHL recommended that the be purchased as the standard fighter for Hungary although likely referring to the earlier versions, not the "U". At this point, the engine issue came to a head. It was clear that no production line aircraft would ever reach Hungary, and now that the war was underway, the RLM was refusing to allow their export anyway.
Shipments of the Jumo or DB were not even able to fulfill German needs, so export of the engine for locally built airframes was likewise out of the question. By September, the ongoing negotiations with the RLM for the license to build the engines locally stalled, and as a result, the MKHL ordered Manfred-Weiss to stop tooling up for the production line aircraft. The license was eventually canceled in December.
The later would be the backbone of the MKHL for much of the war. In the summer of , tensions with Romania over Transylvania started to heat up again and the entire MKHL was placed on alert on 27 June.
Heinkel He 112
On 21 August, the He s were moved forward to the Debrecen airfield to protect a vital railway link. The next week, a peaceful resolution was found, and the settlement was signed in Vienna on 30 August. The He s returned home the following week. By , the aircraft were ostensibly assigned to defend the Manfred-Weiss plant, but were actually used for training.
When Allied bomber raids started in the spring of , the aircraft were no longer airworthy, and it appears all were destroyed in a massive raid on the Budapest-Ferihegy airport on 9 August After the licensed production of the He B fell through in , the plan was to switch the production line to build a Manfred-Weiss-designed aircraft called the W. It would seem that this "simplified" aircraft would be inferior to the He , but in fact the higher-powered engine made all the difference and the W.
Nevertheless, work proceeded slowly and only one prototype was built.
The project was eventually canceled outright when the prototype crashed in early It is still a mystery why so little work had been done in those two years on what appeared to be an excellent design. The Treaty of Versailles ratified the wish of the nations of Central and Eastern Europe, by recognizing the national states of Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia as well as the Union of the Romanian people, by integration of former provinces of the defunct Tsarist and Austro-Hungarian empires, with a Romanian ethnic majority, into the Romanian Kingdom see Union of Transylvania with Romania , Union of Bessarabia with Romania.
These territorial changes did not go well with Bulgaria, and the successor states of the former oppressive empires Hungary, USSR , which adopted a hostile stance. Throughout the s and s, Romania entered a number of alliances with the nearby nations which were in a similar situation, notably Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.
They were interested in blocking any changes to the Treaty of Versailles which could lead to reintegration by force in a multinational empire and, eventually, the loss of national identity.